“Prevention and Research” is aimed to combine scientific research and prevention in the field of health and safety .
The journal promotes the study and scientific research in the field of diseases prevention in the general and working population with practical implications for the general practitioners, occupational and forensics specialists.
The preventive nature of the journal is based on the publication of scientific and multidisciplinary articles in the field of medical sciences, which promote knowledge of research and new directions of scientific progress in the field of protection of health and safety.
“Prevention and Research”publishes editorials, perspectives, original articles, reviews and meta-analyzes, case reports , commentaries, letters to the Editor, special articles, operating procedures and guidelines.
Manuscripts should follow the instructions for authors reported in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Editors proposed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors ( www.icmje.org ).
Articles not conforming to international standards will not be accepted.
The journal is quarterly and can publishes supplements.
The purpose of the supplement is to investigate, by means of a monographic treatment, a scientific theme providing practical implications for occupational and forensic specialists andgeneral practitioners.
Pre-acceptance English language editing service
Authors for whom English is a second language should have their manuscript professionally edited or edited by a fluent English speaker before submission. This service is aimed to:
• improve grammar, spelling, and punctuation;
• improve clarity and resolve any ambiguity caused by poor phrasing;
• improve word-choice and ensure that the tone of the language is appropriate for an academic journal.
All articles published by “Prevention and Research” are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers.
Authors of articles are the copyright holders of their articles and have granted to any third party, in advance and in perpetuity, the right to use, reproduce or disseminate the article.
Publication is free of charge
INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS
Original articles. These should be original contributions to the subject. The article must be subdivided into the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion. In the introduction the aim of the study should be clearly summed up. The materials and methods section should describe in a logical sequence how the study was designed and carried out, how the data were analyzed (what hypothesis was tested, what type of study was carried out, how randomization was done, how the subjects were recruited and chosen, provide accurate details of the main features of treatment, of the materials used, of drug dosages, of unusual equipment, of the statistical method ...). In the results section the answers to the questions posed in the introduction should be given. The results should be reported fully, clearly and concisely supported, if necessary, by figures, graphs and tables. The discussion section should sum up the main results, critically analyze the methods used, compare the results obtained with other published data and discuss the implications of the results. The discussion should also briefly sum up the significance of the study and its future implications.
Review articles. These should discuss a topic of current interest, outline current knowledge of the subject, analyze different opinions regarding the problem discussed, be up-to-date on the latest data in the literature. The authors should avoid presenting material which has already been published in a previous review. The article must be subdivided into the following sections: introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion.
Case reports. These give a description of particularly interesting cases. The text of your paper does not necessarily have to conform to the following structure: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. It’s possible to end the paper with the Conclusion section.
Special articles. They concern with health care organization, ethics, economic and law policy connected with medicine. The text of your paper does not necessarily have to conform to the following structure: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. It’s possible to end the paper with the Conclusion section.
Operating procedures. Based on the laws and rules that apply in the subject matter, the authors propose a new and innovative operating procedure, focusing on the practical implications and innovations that it might have for general pratictioners, occupational and forensic specialists. The text of your paper does not necessarily have to conform to the following structure: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. It’s possible to end the paper with the Conclusion section.
Guidelines or guides. They are documents drawn up by scientific committees or authoritative sources on the specific subject. The text of your paper does not necessarily have to conform to the following structure: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. It’s possible to end the paper with the Conclusion section.
Commentaries: The text of your paper does not necessarily have to conform to the following structure: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. It’s possible to end the paper with the Conclusion section.
• Comments. They are short manuscripts about the personal position of an author in relation to a specific article.
• Letters to the Editor. They are short manuscripts about the personal position of an author about an article published in “Prevention & Research”.
• Editorials. They are commissioned by the Editor in Chief on a subject of great scientific importance in which the author expresses his own opinion.
• Perspectives. They deal with a topic of great scientific importance in which the author expresses his own opinion.
The authors, under its own responsibility, may submit to the journal unpublished material, in whole or part, which has not been published by others and / or in other languages, nor submitted for publication to other media of scientific dissemination via print and paper / or electronic form, nor included in Internet. The scientific material must also be the result of personal ideas and / or working hypothesis, it must not contain anything ethically and morally unacceptable, should not contravene the provisions of the rules relating to privacy and must not violate the laws on human trials and animals.
If not differently specified, papers should be set out as follows, with each section beginning on a separate page:
• title page
• figures and legends
The title page should give the following information:
- title of the article
- article type
• full name, degrees (i.e. MD, DMD, DDS, PHD), title and affiliations (department and institution) of all authors
• name, address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail address of the author responsible for correspondence and to whom requests for off prints should be sent (corresponding author)
• sources of support in the form of grants.
Abstract and key words.
The summary must not exceed 250 words. It should be typewritten on a separate page and structured as the article’s sections. No abbreviations, apart from standard units of measurement, may be used in the summary. The summary must be followed by a list of 2 to 6 key words – these must be terms from the Index Medicus Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list – to be used for indexing purposes.
The Editors reserve the right to make language corrections. Do not use subheadings or abbreviations; write as a continuous paragraph. Must contain all relevant information, including results and conclusion.
If not differently specified, please ensure that the text of your paper conforms to the following structure: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion. There is no separate Conclusion section. There should be no mention of the institution where the work was carried out, especially in the Materials and Methods section.
• Present first the nature and scope of the problem investigated
• Review briefly the pertinent literature
• State the rationale for the study
• Explain the purpose in writing the paper
• State the method of investigation and the reasons for the choice of a particular method
•Should be written in the present tense
Materials and Methods
•Give the full details, limit references
• Should be written in the past tense
• Include exact technical specifications, quantities and generic names
• Limit the number of subheadings, and use the same in the results section
• Mention statistical method
• Do not include results in this section
• Do not describe methods
• Present results in the past tense
• Present representations rather than endlessly repetitive data
• Use tables where appropriate, and do not repeat information in the text
• Discuss - do not recapitulate results
• Point out exceptions and lack of correlations. Do not try to cover up or 'fudge' data
• Show how results agree/contrast with previous work
• Discuss the implications of your findings
• State your conclusions very clearly with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data.
Headings enhance readability but should be appropriate to the nature of the paper. They should be kept to a minimum and may be removed by the Editors. Normally only two categories of headings should be used: major ones should be typed in capital letters; minor ones should be typed in lower case (with an initial capital letter) at the left hand margin.
If any statistical methods are used, the text should state the test or other analytical method applied, basic descriptive statistics, critical value obtained, degrees of freedom, and significance level, e.g. (ANOVA, F=2.34; df=3,46; P<0.05. If a computer data analysis was involved, the software package should be mentioned. Descriptive statistics may be presented in the form of a table, or included in the text.
Abbreviations, symbols, and nomenclature.
Only standardized terms, which have been generally accepted, should be used. Unfamiliar abbreviations must be defined when first used. For further details concerning abbreviations, see Baron DN, ed. Units, symbols, and abbreviations. A guide for biological and medical editors and authors, London, Royal Society of Medicine, 1988 (available from The Royal Society of Medicine Services, 1 Wimpole Street, London W1M 8AE, UK).
The minus sign should be -.
If a special designation for teeth is used, a note should explain the symbols. Scientific names of organisms should be binomials, the generic name only with a capital, and should be italicised in the typescript. Microorganisms should be named according to the latest edition of the Manual of Clinical Microbiology, American Society of Microbiology.
Generic terms are to be used whenever possible, but trade names and manufacturer name, city, state, and country should be included parenthetically at first mention.
The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author; please refer to a recent issue of the journal to familiarise yourself with the reference style. All authors or groups of authors cited in the article must appear in the list of references and vice versa, be numbered in Arabic numerals and consecutively as they are cited. All references cited in the text must be included in the list of references. It is expected that all cited references will have been read by the authors. The references must contain only the authors cited in the text, Bibliographical entries in the text should be quoted using superscripted Arabic numerals. References must be set out in the standard format approved by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org
Journals. Each entry must specify the author’s surname and initials (list all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list only the first six and then ''et al.''), the article’s original title, the name of the Journal (according to the abbreviations used by MEDLINE/PubMed), the year of publication, the volume number and the number of the first and last pages. When citing references, please follow the rules for international standard punctuation carefully.
- Standard article. Sutherland DE, Simmons RL, Howard RJ. Intracapsular technique of transplant nephrectomy. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1978;146:951-2.
- Organization as author International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. Ann Int Med 1988;108:258-65.- Issue with supplement Payne DK, Sullivan MD, Massie MJ. Women’s psychological reactions to breast cancer. Semin Oncol 1996;23(1 Suppl 2):89-97.
-Books and monographs. For occasional publications, the names of authors, title, edition, place, publisher and year of publication must be given.
Examples:-Books by one or more authors: Rossi G. Manual of Otorhinolaryngology. Turin: Edizioni Minerva Medica; 1987.-Chapter from book: De Meester TR. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Moody FG, Carey LC, Scott Jones R, Ketly KA, Nahrwold DL, Skinner DB, editors. Surgical treatment of digestive diseases. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers; 1986. p. 132-58.
-Congress proceedings. Kimura J, Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.
-Standard journal article on the Internet: Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2007 Jan 4];145(1):62-9. Available from: http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/145/1/62.pdf
-Standard citation to a book on CD-ROM or DVD: Kacmarek RM. Advanced respiratory care [CD-ROM]. Version 3.0. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; ©2000. 1 CD-ROM: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.-Standard citation to a homepage: AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; ©1995-2007 [cited 2007 Feb 22]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/
Footnotes and endnotes of Word must not be used in the preparation of references.
References first cited in a table or figure legend should be numbered so that they will be in sequence with references cited in the text taking into consideration the point where the table or figure is first mentioned. Therefore, those references should not be listed at the end of the reference section but consecutively as they are cited.
Tables should be used only to clarify important points. Formats accepted are Excel and Word. Double documentation in the form of tables and figures is not acceptable. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. They should be double spaced on separate pages and contain only horizontal rules. Do not submit tables as photographs. A short descriptive title should appear above each table, with any footnotes suitably identified below. Care must be taken to ensure that all units are included. Ensure that each table is cited in the text.
Figures and legends.
All illustrations (e.g. graphs, drawings or photographs) are considered to be figures, and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Each figure should have a caption, typed double-spaced on a separate page and numbered correspondingly. The minimum resolution for electronically generated figures is 300 dpi. Formats accepted are JPEG, EPS, TIFF and Power Point.. Histological photographs should always be accompanied by the magnification ratio and the staining method. If figures are in color, it should always be specified whether color or black and white reproduction is required. Figures should be referenced in the text sequentially. Each figure should have a legend.
Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication.
Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (lineart) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible). For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: lineart: >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi
All line illustrations should present a crisp black image on an even white background. The size of the lettering should be appropriate, taking into account the necessary size reduction.
Photographs and radiographs.
Photomicrographs should show magnification and details of any staining techniques used. The area(s) of interest must be clearly indicated with arrows or other symbols. Colour images are encouraged, but the decision whether an illustration is accepted for reproduction in colour in the printed journal lies with the editor-in-chief.
Where illustrations must include recognizable individuals, living or dead, great care must be taken to ensure that consent for publication has been obtained. If identifiable features are not essential to the illustration, please indicate where the illustration can be cropped. In cases where consent has not been obtained and recognizable features may appear, it will be necessary to touch up the illustration to mask the eyes or otherwise render the individual unrecognizable.
SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS
Manuscripts should be uploaded as PC Word (.doc) plus separate figure files. GIF, JPEG, PICT or Bitmap files are acceptable for submission, but only high-resolution TIF or EPS files are suitable for printing. The text file must contain the entire manuscript including title page, abstract, text, references, tables, and figure legends, but no embedded figures. In the text, please reference figures and tables as for instance 'Figure 1', 'Figure 2' etc or 'Table 1', ' Table 2' etc to match the tag name you choose for the individual figure files uploaded. Manuscripts should be formatted as described in the Author Guidelines below.
To ensure uniformity of style, the Editors reserve the right to copy-edit manuscripts. Any changes deemed necessary will be submitted to the authors for approval in the page proofs. It is implicitly accepted by the authors that all manuscripts will, upon publication, become the artistic and literary property of the Journal. No part of the publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or other – without the written permission of the publisher. Whenever the manuscript is subsequently cited, the Journal must be cited as the original source.
REVIEW OF MANUSCRIPT
All papers will be reviewed. The names of the reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper. Reviewers may be members of the Editorial Board. Decisions are made by the Editor in Chief, based on the reviewer reports.
Authors are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours. Major changes are not acceptable at the proof stage. If unable to send corrections within 48 hours due to some reason, the author(s) must at least send an acknowledgement on receiving the galley proofs or the article will be published exactly as received and the publishers will not be responsible for any error occurring in the manuscript in this regard.
The corresponding author will be solely responsible for ensuring that the revised version of the manuscript incorporating all the submitted corrections receives the approval of all the authors of the manuscript.
“Prevention and Research” adheres to the ethical guidelines below for publication and research.
Authorship: Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal. ALL named authors must have made an active contribution to the conception and design and/or analysis and interpretation of the data and/or the drafting of the paper and ALL must have critically reviewed its content and have approved the final version submitted for publication. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. “Prevention and Research” adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE authorship criteria should be based on 1) substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3. Up to 6 authors are accepted without need for justification. In the case of a specific and detailed justification of the role of every author, up to 8 authors may be mentioned. It is a requirement that all authors have been accredited as appropriate upon submission of the manuscript. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements. Acknowledgements: Under acknowledgements please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited. Acknowledge only persons who have made substantive contributions to the study. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from everyone acknowledged by name as readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions.
Experimentation involving human subjects will only be published if such research has been conducted in full accordance with ethical principles, including the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki (version, 2002 www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm
) and the additional requirements, if any, of the country where the research has been carried out. Manuscripts must be accompanied by a statement that the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject and according to the above mentioned principles. A statement regarding the fact that the study has been independently reviewed and approved by an ethical board should also be included. Editor reserve the right to reject papers if there are doubts as to whether appropriate procedures have been used. When experimental animals are used the methods section must clearly indicate that adequate measures were taken to minimize pain or discomfort. Experiments should be carried out in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the USA regarding the care and use of animals for experimental procedures or with the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) and in accordance with local laws and regulations.
Conflict of Interest and Source of Funding: “Prevention and Research” requires that sources of institutional, private and corporate financial support for the work within the manuscript be fully acknowledged, and any potential conflicts of interest noted. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included. Information concerning conflict of interest and sources of funding should be included under Acknowledgements.
Appeal of Decision: The decision on a paper is final and cannot be appealed.
Permissions: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.
Copyright Assignment: Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Correspondence to the journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licences the publisher to publish the letter as part of the journal or separately from it, in the exercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the journal and its contents.
Names, phone numbers and e-mail addresses submitted to the Editor will be processed solely for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be used for any other purpose.